Recommendations for the Identification of Chronic Hepatitis C Virus Infection Among Persons Born during 1945–1965
- Adults born during 1945–1965 should receive one-time testing for HCV without prior ascertainment of HCV risk.
- All persons with identified HCV infection should receive a brief alcohol screening and intervention as clinically indicated, followed by referral to appropriate care and treatment services for HCV infection and related conditions.
Guidelines for Prevention and Treatment of Opportunistic Infections in HIV-Infected Adults and Adolescents
- HIV-infected patients should be tested routinely for evidence of chronic HCV infection. Initial testing for HCV should be performed using the most sensitive immunoassays licensed for detection of antibody to HCV (anti-HCV) in blood.
Recommendations for Prevention and Control of Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) Infection and HCV-Related Chronic Diseases
Routine HCV testing is recommended for
- Persons who ever injected illegal drugs, including those who injected once or a few times many years ago and do not consider themselves as drug users.
- Persons with selected medical conditions, including
- persons who received clotting factor concentrates produced before 1987;
- persons who were ever on chronic (long-term) hemodialysis; and
- persons with persistently abnormal alanine aminotransferase levels.
- Prior recipients of transfusions or organ transplants, including
- persons who were notified that they received blood from a donor who later tested positive for HCV infection;
- persons who received a transfusion of blood or blood components before July 1992; and
- persons who received an organ transplant before July 1992.
Routine HCV testing is recommended for persons with recognized exposures, including
- Health care, emergency medical, and public safety workers after needle sticks, sharps, or mucosal exposures to HCV-positive blood.
- Children born to HCV-positive women
After test conduction
Persons infected with HCV can benefit from the following .
- Contact a health-care provider(either a primary-care clinician or specialist [e.g., in hepatology, gastroenterology, or infectious disease]), for
- medical evaluation of the presence or development of chronic liver disease;
- advice on possible treatment options and strategies; and
- advice on how to monitor liver health, even if treatment is not recommended.
- Protect the liver from further harm by,
- considering hepatitis A and B vaccination if susceptible and if liver disease is present;
- reducing or discontinuing alcohol consumption;
- avoiding new medicines, including over-the-counter and herbal agents, without first checking with their health-care provider; and
- obtaining HIV risk assessment and testing.
- For persons who are overweight (BMI ≥25kg/m2) or obese (BMI ≥30kg/m2),
- consider weight management or losing weight and
- follow a healthy diet and stay physically active.
- To minimize the risk for transmission to others,
- do not donate blood, tissue, or semen and
- do not share appliances that might come into contact with blood, such as toothbrushes, dental appliances, razors, and nail clippers.
Screening tools shown to be effective in eliciting a history of alcohol use from patients include the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT). Screening tools are available from the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, and WHO has published intervention tools to help patients adopt healthy behaviors regarding alcohol use.
- CDC. Recommendations for the identification of chronic hepatitis C virus infection among persons born during 1945–1965. MMWR 2012;61(No. RR–4).
- CDC. Guidelines for prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections in HIV-infected adults and adolescents: Recommendations from CDC, the National Institutes of Health, and the HIV Medicine Association of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. MMWR 2009;58(No. RR–4).
- CDC. Recommendations for prevention and control of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection and HCV-related chronic disease. MMWR 1998;47(No. RR–19).
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