- Acid (HCl) hypersecretion
- Helicobacter pylori
- Ingestion of NSAID
- Duodenal ulcer
- Gastric ulcer
- Complicated peptic ulcer – perforated gastric or duodenal ulcer
- Pyloric stenosis
- Intermittent epigastric pain, which may radiate to back.
- Periodicity -> symptoms recovering after weeks or months.
- Bleeding – causing 1. Anaemia 2. Haematemesis 3. Melena
- Exam shows epigastric tenderness.
- Advise for modifying of lifestyle — e.g. cessation of cigarette smoking
- H2 – receptor antagonists e.g. ranitidine, cimetidine
- Proton–Pump Inhibitors e.g. omeprazole.Relapses with above therapy are Universal
- H. Pylori Eradication Therapy.1) Amoxil + metronidazole.2) Clarithromycin + metronidazole
- Surgical Treatment in case of complication like perforation failure of conservative management of bleeding peptic ulcer and pyloric obstruction.