Emphasis on Chest Compressions
- Untrained lay rescuers should provide compression-only (Hands-Only) CPR, with or without dispatcher guidance, for adult victims of cardiac arrest.
- The rescuer should continue compression-only CPR until the arrival of an AED or rescuers with additional training.
- The rescuer should continue CPR until an AED arrives and is ready for use, EMS providers take over care of the victim, or the victim starts to move.
- If a bystander is not trained in CPR, the bystander should provide compression-only CPR, with an emphasis to “push hard and fast”.
- The rescuer should continue CPR until an AED arrives and is ready for use or EMS providers take over care of the victim.
- The rescuer should continue compression-only CPR until an AED arrives and is ready for use or EMS providers take over care of the victim.
Chest Compression Rate
2015 (New): In adult victims of cardiac arrest, it is reasonable for rescuers to perform chest compressions at a rate of 100 to 120/min.
2010 (Old): It is reasonable for lay rescuers and HCPs to perform chest compressions at a rate of at least 100/min.
Chest Compression Depth
2015 (New): Perform chest compressions to a depth of at least 2 inches (5 cm.) for an average adult, while avoiding excessive chest compressions depths (greater than 2.4 inches [6 cm.])
2010 (Old): The adult sternum should be depressed at least 2 inches (5 cm.)
Use of Social Media to Summon Rescuers
2015 (New): It may be reasonable for communities to incorporate social media technologies that summon rescuers who are in close proximity to a victim of suspected OHCA and are willing and able to perform CPR.
Bystander Naloxone in Opioid-Associated Life-Threatening Emergencies
2015 (New): For patients with known or suspected opioid addiction who are unresponsive with no normal breathing but a pulse, it is reasonable for appropriately trained lay rescuers and BLS providers, in addition to providing standard BLS care, to administer intramuscular (IM) or intranasal (IN) naloxone. Opioid overdose response education with or without naloxone distribution to persons at risk for opioid overdose in any setting may be considered. This topic is also addressed in the Special Circumstances of Resuscitation section.