Human brain programs itself subjectively as an array of consciousness, which allows individuals to model the environment, and so to deal with it effectively according to their desires. This is rightly an amazing thing placed inside our craniums; however it can trick us as a part of its normal processing. Any disturbance from this normal function leads to a psychological or behavioral patterns associated with distress that occurs in an individual, which is not a part of normal development. The branch of Psychiatric Health has expanded over time, discovering such incredibly strange disorders a normal mind might even fail to believe like that but they exist!
Hemispatial neglect, is a neuropsychological condition in which, after damage to one hemisphere of the brain, a deficit in attention to and awareness of one side of space is observed. Hemispatial neglect is very commonly on the opposite side of the damaged hemisphere, but instances of same sided neglect have been reported.
Delusional misidentification syndrome is an umbrella term, for a group of delusional disorders that all involve a belief that the identity of a person, object or place has somehow changed or has been altered.
As a mental disorder/symptom, Autophagia is a case in which one is compelled to inflict pain upon oneself by biting and/or devouring portions of one’s body. It is sometimes caused by severe sexual anxiety, sometimes combined with schizophrenia or psychosis
Derealization (DR) is an alteration in the perception or experience of the external world so that it seems strange or unreal. The detachment of realization can be described as an immaterial substance that separates a person from the outside world, such as a sensory fog, a pane of glass, or a veil. Individuals may complain that what they see lacks vividness and emotional colouring.Familiar places may look alien, bizarre, and surreal. The world as perceived by the individual may feel like it is going through a dolly zoom effect. Such perceptual abnormalities may also extend to the senses of hearing, taste, and smell.
Synaesthesia is a neurologically-based condition in which stimulation of one sensory or cognitive pathway leads to automatic, involuntary experiences in a second sensory or cognitive pathway. The sensory links are intermixed. When a person senses something, automatically, another sensation lights up. For example patients see letters in different colors, some might see music, or taste words, days of the week have personalities, and some experience to see time, etc The picture above depicts of a synesthete being able to taste color.
Amputee Identity Disorder, refers to a neurological and psychological mental disorder implying a psychological feeling that one would be happier living life as an amputee and is usually, if not always, accompanied by the desire to amputate one or more healthy limbs in order to enact that desire.
Also known as oniomania it is the compulsive desire to shop. The addicted person gets into a vicious circle that consists of negative emotions like anger and stress, which lead to purchasing something. After the buying is over, the person is either regretful or depressed. In order to cope with the feelings, the addicted person resorts to another purchase.
Walking Corpse or Cotard’s Syndrome, also known as nihilistic or negation delusion, is a rare neuropsychiatric disorder in which people hold a delusional belief that they are dead (either figuratively or literally), do not exist, are putrefying, or have lost their blood or internal organs. Rarely, it can include delusions of immortality.Despair and self-loathing characterize a mild state. Someone suffering the severe state begins to deny the very existence of the self.
Alice in Wonderland syndrome, also known as Todd’s syndrome, is a disorienting neurological condition which affects human perception. Sufferers may experience micropsia, macropsia and size distortion of other sensory modalities. A temporary condition, it is often associated with migraines, brain tumors, and the use of psychoactive drugs
Micropsia is a neurological condition affecting human visual perception in which humans, inanimate and animate objects are perceived to be substantially smaller than they actually are. Micropsia can be caused by either optical distortion of images in the eye (as by glasses or certain ocular conditions) or by a neurological dysfunction. Similarly macropsia is the reverse condition characterized by objects appearing substantially larger than they actually are e.g a car may seem as big as a mountain.
Clinical lycanthropy is defined as a rare psychiatric syndrome that involves a delusion that the affected person can or has transformed into an animal or that he or she is an animal. Its name is connected to the mythical condition of lycanthropy, a supernatural affliction in which people are said to physically shapeshift into wolves. The terms zoanthropy and therianthropy are also sometimes used for the delusion that one has turned into an animal in general and not specifically a wolf.
Cite this article as: Burhan Ahmed, MD, "Top 10 psychiatric conditions," in Medicalopedia, January 18, 2011, [Permalink: https://www.medicalopedia.org/724/top-10-psychiatric-conditions/].