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Beer potomania syndrome (Hyponatremia)

Beer potomania is a syndrome of binge drinking, poor nutritional intake, and profound hyponatremia. Etiology Hyponatremia is due to a large consumption of beer (which has...

Diabetic Control in Surgical Patients

ObjectivesAvoid excess morbidity and mortalityPreventHypo, hyperglycemia, increased protein catabolism and undue electrolyte imbalance. Aim for a blood sugar around 200mg/dl i.e: (7 to 11 mmol/L) More...

Pulmonary embolism

Pulmonary thrombo-embolism is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the hospitalized patients.  A vast majority of clinically significant pulmonary emboli (PE)...

Acute intestinal obstruction

Primary Survey:Short HistoryPain (site, character, duration, severity), vomiting, distention, absolute constipation.Look for features of strangulation obstructionPhysical Examination:Check heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate,...

Intravenous access setting and maintainance

Cannulation of the venous system may be required:For the administration of drugs. For the intravenous infusion of fluids. For transfusion of blood products. For parenteral feeding when...

Diabetic foot and its management

Diabetes mellitus is one of those metabolic disorders that impedes normal steps of wound healing process. Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major...

Protocols for Blood Transfusion

Transfusion Triggers/ Indications:Severe blood loss > 1.5 liters in patient with normal Hemoglobin. Severe burns > 50% BSA If Hemoglobin level is < 8mg /dl (In...

Acute urinary retention and its management

Acute Urinary RetentionAcute urinary retention is sudden inability to pass urine.  It is a painful condition.Causes:a)  MechanicalUrinary Bladder:- Stones, tumors and stricture of the...