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Beer potomania syndrome (Hyponatremia)

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Beer potomania is a syndrome of binge drinking, poor nutritional intake, and profound hyponatremia. Etiology Hyponatremia is due to a large consumption of beer (which has...

Diabetic Control in Surgical Patients

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ObjectivesAvoid excess morbidity and mortalityPreventHypo, hyperglycemia, increased protein catabolism and undue electrolyte imbalance. Aim for a blood sugar around 200mg/dl i.e: (7 to 11 mmol/L) More...

Pulmonary embolism

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Pulmonary thrombo-embolism is an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially among the hospitalized patients.  A vast majority of clinically significant pulmonary emboli (PE)...

Acute intestinal obstruction

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Primary Survey:Short HistoryPain (site, character, duration, severity), vomiting, distention, absolute constipation.Look for features of strangulation obstructionPhysical Examination:Check heart rate, blood pressure, temperature, respiratory rate,...

Intravenous access setting and maintainance

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Cannulation of the venous system may be required:For the administration of drugs. For the intravenous infusion of fluids. For transfusion of blood products. For parenteral feeding when...

Diabetic foot and its management

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Diabetes mellitus is one of those metabolic disorders that impedes normal steps of wound healing process. Diabetic foot ulcer is one of the major...

Protocols for Blood Transfusion

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Transfusion Triggers/ Indications:Severe blood loss > 1.5 liters in patient with normal Hemoglobin. Severe burns > 50% BSA If Hemoglobin level is < 8mg /dl (In...

Acute urinary retention and its management

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Acute Urinary RetentionAcute urinary retention is sudden inability to pass urine.  It is a painful condition.Causes:a)  MechanicalUrinary Bladder:- Stones, tumors and stricture of the...